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Old 09-27-2018, 05:41 PM
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Default Cognitive Reserve Attenuates the Effect of Disability on Depression in MS

Want to boost your cog reserve? Keep challenging your brain. And exercise. (Here's just one study: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5934999/) -D

Cognitive Reserve Attenuates the Effect of Disability on Depression in Multiple Sclerosis

Margaret H Cadden Erin T Guty Peter A Arnett
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, acy067, https://doi.org/10.1093/arclin/acy067
Published: 28 August 2018

Abstract

Objective
The current study explored the moderating role of cognitive reserve on the relationship between disability and depression in a sample of individuals in which brain pathology is thought to contribute to depression (multiple sclerosis; MS).

Method
Fifty-four individuals with MS were examined. Depression was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory-Fast Screen (BDI-FS). In addition to collecting demographic (education) and disease burden (Expanded Disability Status Scale; EDSS) related variables, participants completed a neuropsychological test battery and psychosocial questionnaires. Cognitive reserve (CR) was conceptualized in two ways: Fixed CR and Malleable CR. Fixed CR was measured using years of education and crystallized intelligence (Shipley Vocabulary). Malleable CR was operationalized as a composite of measures from the Cognitive Heath Questionnaire (CHQ). Two regressions on depression (BDI-FS) examining either type of cognitive reserve, EDSS, and their interactions were explored. Results: The interaction between EDSS and both conceptualizations of cognitive reserve were significant,t(50) = −2.60, p = .013, PRE = .12 (Fixed CR); t(47) = −2.02, p = .049, PRE = .08 (Malleable CR). Simple effects testing revealed the same pattern regardless of the type of cognitive reserve examined; EDSS predicted depression only in those with low cognitive reserve.

Conclusions
Cognitive reserve moderates the relationship between disability and depression in MS; disability does not appear to influence depression in those with high cognitive reserve.

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