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Old 04-02-2019, 03:47 PM
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Default Study on cognitive reserve in MS and why it matters

The reason I posted this in the Fitness area of our forum? Exercise can boost cognitive reserve. -D

Cognitive reserve, cognition, and regional brain damage in MS: A 2 -year longitudinal study

Maria Assunta Rocca, Gianna C Riccitelli, Alessandro Meani, et al

Abstract
Background:
According to the cognitive reserve (CR) theory, enriching experiences protect against cognitive decline.

Objectives:
To investigate the dynamic interaction between CR and global/regional measures of brain white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM) damage and their effect on cognitive performance in multiple sclerosis (MS).

Methods:
Baseline and 2 -year three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted scans were obtained from 54 MS patients and 20 healthy controls. Patients’ cognitive functions were tested and a cognitive reserve index (CRI) was calculated. Baseline regional atrophy and longitudinal volume changes were investigated using voxel-wise methods. Structural damage and CRI effects on cognitive performance were explored with linear models.

Results:
At baseline, MS patients showed atrophy of the deep GM nuclei, GM/WM frontal–temporal–parietal–occipital regions, and left cerebellum. Controlling for atrophy, higher CRI explained significant portions of variance in verbal memory and verbal fluency (∆R2 = 0.07–0.16; p < 0.03). The interaction between thalamic volume and CRI was significant (∆R2 = 0.05; p = 0.03). Longitudinal changes in memory and attention performance were associated with local/global variations of GM/WM and T2 lesions. CRI had no effect on longitudinal cognitive changes.

Conclusion:
In MS, CR may have a protective role in preserving cognitive functions, moderating the effect of structural damage on cognitive performance. This protective role may diminish with disease progression.
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