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Old 02-25-2020, 04:27 PM
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Default Immunological consequences of HSCT, Alemtuzumab, Cladribine in MS

Autoimmunity Reviews
Available online 13 February 2020, 102492

Immunological consequences of “immune reconstitution therapy” in multiple sclerosis: A systematic review

Johann Sellner, Paulus S. Rommer, et al
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autrev.2020.102492

Highlights
•“Immune reconstitution therapy” is an emerging concept for treating multiple sclerosis.

•“Immune reconstitution therapy” results in a less proinflammatory cellular immune profile.

•Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation produces the longest-lasting effects.

•Alemtuzumab and cladribine tablets also produce prolonged depletion after two courses.

Abstract
Immune reconstitution therapy (IRT) is an emerging concept for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) that is given intermittently and can induce long-term remission of MS that is sustained in treatment-free periods. A systematic literature review was performed to identify and summarize current knowledge regarding the short- and long-term immunological consequences of different IRTs and CD20 depleting therapies on the cellular level in patients with MS.

A total of 586 articles published between January 2010 and September 2019 were identified and screened; 44 studies met inclusion criteria for the review. All the treatments considered appeared to produce both qualitative and quantitative changes in the immune cell populations of patients with MS that resulted in a more anti-inflammatory immune profile.

Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation produced the longest-lasting and greatest effects on a wide range of immune cells. Many patients achieved prolonged depletion of the adaptive immune system when alemtuzumab and cladribine tablets were administered as short courses of therapy; however, a proportion of patients required retreatment to maintain these effects.

Alemtuzumab may produce greater depletion of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells than cladribine tablets, although both treatments similarly deplete B cells. Recovery of B cells before T cell recovery and hyperpopulation of B cells after alemtuzumab may contribute to secondary autoimmunity. Cladribine tablets had a greater effect on B cells than T cells, and no hyperpopulation of B cells was observed after treatment with cladribine tablets. Ocrelizumab and rituximab require regular repeated treatment every 6 months to maintain depletion of B and T cells.

Effects of the drug treatments on the innate immune system were minor compared with those on the adaptive immune system. Additional characterization of the cellular changes occurring during IRT and CD20 depletion may lead to further improvement in the understanding of the pathogenesis of MS and the future development of therapies with even longer lasting effects.

Although the treatments considered in this review improve quality of life and outcomes for patients with MS, a cure for this debilitating disease is not yet in sight.
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