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PML appears in long-term follow-up of more than 10 years after HSCT

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  • PML appears in long-term follow-up of more than 10 years after HSCT

    This is the first case of PML that I've noticed with HSCT. Still powerful results. - D

    J Neurol. 2017 Dec 21. doi: 10.1007/s00415-017-8718-2. [Epub ahead of print]

    Long-term follow-up more than 10 years after HSCT: a monocentric experience.

    Frau J1, Carai M2, Coghe G2, Fenu G2, Lorefice L2, La Nasa G3, Mamusa E2, Vacca A3, Marrosu MG2, Cocco E2.


    Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT) is used in aggressive relapsing and progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). The multicentre studies and case series reported have relatively short follow-up.

    To evaluate long-term effect and safety of HSCT in MS.

    Patients referred to the MS centre of Cagliari and undergoing HSCT were included. Variations in relapses and EDSS before and after HSCT were evaluated by Wilcoxon test. A descriptive analysis was made for other clinical data.

    Nine patients (female 6, males 3; 5 relapsing-remitting, 2 secondary progressive, 1 primary progressive, and 1 progressive relapsing) performed HSCT (1999-2006). The median follow-up was 11 years (11-18). Eight patients underwent aHSCT, seven using a low intensity conditioning regimen, and one an intermediate intensity. The primary progressive underwent allogeneic HSCT, due to onco hematological disease. The relapses number decreased in the 2 years following the procedure compared to the two preceding years (p = 0.041). New relapses or disease progressions were observed after a range of 7 (low intensity regimen)-118 (intermediate intensity) months. At last follow-up, the EDSS was stable in two patients, improved in two, and worse in five (maximum 2 EDSS in one patient). Six patients showed new lesions, and seven gadolinium-enhancing on brain MRI after a mean of 23.3 and 19.8 months, respectively. Two serious adverse events were reported: melanoma, and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.

    Our results confirm in a long follow-up the efficacy of HSCT in reducing relapses and disability progression. The risk/benefit profile is better for intermediate intensity regimens.
    Dave Bexfield