Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (AHSCT): An Evolving Treatment Avenue in Multiple Sclerosis

Dove Press journal: Biologics: Targets and Therapy

Reihane Mohammadi1 Alisam Aryan2 Mir Davood Omrani 1 Sayyed Mohammad Hossein Ghaderian 1 Zahra Fazeli 1 1 Department of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 2 Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) is considered as the novel approach to improve multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with disease-modifying therapies (DMTs)-resistance. The results obtained from different studies indicate that AHSCT increases the life quality of MS patients. Several factors are known to be influenced on the successful rate of AHSCT in patients with MS. The individuals aged <40 years with a short duration of MS disease have been demonstrated to show a better response to AHSCT administration. Furthermore, this treatment approach was more effective in relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) patients than progressive MS (PMS).

Different clinical trials revealed that AHSCT with a low density conditioning regimen could be suggested as a suitable candidate approach in the management of MS. Several molecular and cellular mechanisms are known to be involved in the resetting of the immune system following the AHSCT infusion in MS patients. These mechanisms play a role in the depletion of auto-reactive lymphocytes and immune system renewal. In the present review, we discuss different clinical and molecular aspects of AHSCT application in the alleviation of MS symptoms. Keywords: autologous hematopoietic stem cells, transplantation, multiple sclerosis, molecular mechanisms, resetting immune system.